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Bile Duct and Pancreas Problems

Bile Duct Stones :: Pancreatitis :: Pancreatic Cancer :: Infrared Coagulation of Hemorrhoids

Bile Duct Stones

Bile duct stones are the presence of stones in the common bile duct (a small tube like structure that carry bile from the gallbladder to the intestine). The condition is also known as choledocholithiasis. The stones consists bile pigments, calcium, or cholesterol salts.

Bile duct stones causes sharp, intermittent pain in the right upper or middle upper abdomen, fever, loss of appetite, yellowing of skin and eyes (jaundice), nausea, and vomiting usually occur when the stone blocks the common bile duct.

These stones cause biliary colic, a very specific type of pain that occurs when the bile duct is partially obstructed. Duct dilation, jaundice (yellow discoloration of skin and eyes) and eventually cholangitis, a bacterial infection of the common bile duct that occurs when there is complete obstruction of the duct. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) or ultrasound scan are used to diagnose bile duct stones.

Treatment options to remove these stones include surgery, Endoscope retrograde
cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), and called sphincterotomy.

ERCP: Is a technique that combines the use of endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose to treat the conditions of bile ducts. The success rate of the surgery is 85 to 90%.

Sphincterotomy: It is new endoscopic technique developed to examine and treat abnormalities of the bile ducts, pancreas and gall bladder. It is the surgical cutting of the muscle in the common bile duct.



Inflammation of pancreas is called as pancreatitis and is of two types, acute and chronic. Acute pancreatitis is sudden and is caused because of gall stones or chronic alcoholism. Chronic pancreatitis occurs when the digestive enzymes attack and destroy the pancreas. Acute pancreatitis that damages pancreatic duct may lead to chronic pancreatitis. The major cause for chronic pancreatitis is chronic alcoholism. It is characterized with abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting. Certain complications of pancreatitis may require surgery. If pancreatitis results from gallstones, cholecystectomy is performed. It is surgical removal of the gallbladder.

In open cholecystectomy, a long incision 5 to 8 inch is made in the abdomen. The incision runs from below the ribs to below the waist.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is an invasive technique to remove the gall bladder. Several small incisions are made in the abdomen rather than a large incision. The technique uses a laparoscope, a small thin tube instrument attached with tiny camera and lens that enables to view the inner area on a larger screen.

If certain complications such as enlargement of pancreas, bleeding, pseudocysts or abscess develop, surgical drainage or repair or removal of the affected tissues may be needed.


Pancreatic Cancer

It is an uncontrolled cell division in the pancreas. Individuals with a habit of smoking, chronic alcoholism and those having diabetes mellitus are at high risk of developing cancer. Chronic pancreatitis if left untreated may cause cancer. Risk of cancer is also high in individuals with a family history of pancreatic cancer. Various diagnostic procedures such as abdominal ultrasound, abdominal computed tomography, percutaneous biopsy, and/or endoscopic biopsy are the performed to diagnose pancreatic cancer. Treatment depends on the stage of cancer and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and/or surgery.

The Whipple procedure is the most common surgical procedure for pancreatic cancer. It is performed for the cancer of the head of the pancreas. In this procedure, the head of pancreas, duodenum, gall bladder and a portion of stomach is removed.

Distal subtotal pancreatectomy is another surgical treatment performed when the pancreatic cancer is in the body or tail of the pancreas. In this procedure, body and tail of the pancreas as well as the spleen is removed.


Infrared Coagulation of Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are swelling in the rectum or anal area that may protrude through the anus on straining. They usually contain enlarged veins and are most common in people over the age of 50.

Infrared Coagulation of Hemorrhoids Click here to read more

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